40 Jahre nach "Ben Hur" und "Spartacus" feiert der Film "Gladiator" in Los Angeles Premiere. Er setzt neue Maßstäbe für das verstaubte Genre. Gladiatoren (aus lateinisch gladiator, zu gladius für „[Kurz-]Schwert“) waren im antiken Rom Berufskämpfer, die in öffentlichen Schaustellungen gegeneinander. Der australische Schauspieler Russell Crowe wurde durch „Gladiator“ zum Star. Eventuell gibt es bald eine Fortsetzung. Dafür müsste die.
Der römische Feldherr Maximus soll die Nachfolge des sterbenden Kaisers Marcus Aurelius antreten. Doch dessen Sohn Commodus will dies verhindern. Er tötet seinen Vater und ordnet die Exekution von Maximus und seiner Familie an. Doch Maximus. Gladiator ist ein mit fünf Oscars prämierter Monumentalfilm aus dem Jahr Er entstand unter der Regie von Ridley Scott und spielte weltweit ca. Gladiatoren (aus lateinisch gladiator, zu gladius für „[Kurz-]Schwert“) waren im antiken Rom Berufskämpfer, die in öffentlichen Schaustellungen gegeneinander. 300bar.nu: Finden Sie Gladiator (Einzel-DVD) in unserem vielfältigen DVD- & Blu-ray-Angebot. Gratis Versand durch Amazon ab einem Bestellwert von 29€. Gladiator. 2 Std. 35 Min. Er sollte dem Kaiser auf den Thron folgen, doch stattdessen wird der römische General vom machthungrigen Sohn des. 37 Userkritiken zum Film Gladiator von Ridley Scott mit Russell Crowe, Joaquin Phoenix, Connie Nielsen - 300bar.nu 40 Jahre nach "Ben Hur" und "Spartacus" feiert der Film "Gladiator" in Los Angeles Premiere. Er setzt neue Maßstäbe für das verstaubte Genre.
Gladiator. 2 Std. 35 Min. Er sollte dem Kaiser auf den Thron folgen, doch stattdessen wird der römische General vom machthungrigen Sohn des. Der römische Feldherr Maximus soll die Nachfolge des sterbenden Kaisers Marcus Aurelius antreten. Doch dessen Sohn Commodus will dies verhindern. Er tötet seinen Vater und ordnet die Exekution von Maximus und seiner Familie an. Doch Maximus. Der australische Schauspieler Russell Crowe wurde durch „Gladiator“ zum Star. Eventuell gibt es bald eine Fortsetzung. Dafür müsste die. Der australische Schauspieler Russell Crowe wurde durch „Gladiator“ zum Star. Eventuell gibt es bald eine Fortsetzung. Dafür müsste die. Über Filme auf DVD bei Thalia ✓»Gladiator«und weitere DVD Filme jetzt online bestellen!
The magistrate editor entered among a retinue who carried the arms and armour to be used; the gladiators presumably came in last. The entertainments often began with venationes beast hunts and bestiarii beast fighters.
A crude Pompeian graffito suggests a burlesque of musicians, dressed as animals named Ursus tibicen flute-playing bear and Pullus cornicen horn-blowing chicken , perhaps as accompaniment to clowning by paegniarii during a "mock" contest of the ludi meridiani.
Increasingly the munus was the editor' s gift to spectators who had come to expect the best as their due. Lightly armed and armoured fighters, such as the retiarius , would tire less rapidly than their heavily armed opponents; most bouts would have lasted 10 to 15 minutes, or 20 minutes at most.
Spectators preferred to watch highly skilled, well matched ordinarii with complementary fighting styles; these were the most costly to train and to hire.
A general melee of several, lower-skilled gladiators was far less costly, but also less popular. Even among the ordinarii , match winners might have to fight a new, well-rested opponent, either a tertiarius "third choice gladiator" by prearrangement; or a "substitute" gladiator suppositicius who fought at the whim of the editor as an unadvertised, unexpected "extra".
Most were probably of poor quality,  but the emperor Caracalla chose to test a notably skilled and successful fighter named Bato against first one supposicitius , whom he beat, and then another, who killed him.
Combats between experienced, well trained gladiators demonstrated a considerable degree of stagecraft. Among the cognoscenti, bravado and skill in combat were esteemed over mere hacking and bloodshed; some gladiators made their careers and reputation from bloodless victories.
Suetonius describes an exceptional munus by Nero, in which no-one was killed, "not even noxii enemies of the state. Trained gladiators were expected to observe professional rules of combat.
Most matches employed a senior referee summa rudis and an assistant, shown in mosaics with long staffs rudes to caution or separate opponents at some crucial point in the match.
Referees were usually retired gladiators whose decisions, judgement and discretion were, for the most part, respected;  they could stop bouts entirely, or pause them to allow the combatants rest, refreshment and a rub-down.
Ludi and munera were accompanied by music, played as interludes, or building to a "frenzied crescendo" during combats, perhaps to heighten the suspense during a gladiator's appeal; blows may have been accompanied by trumpet-blasts.
Their instruments are a long straight trumpet tubicen , a large curved horn Cornu and a water organ hydraulis. A match was won by the gladiator who overcame his opponent, or killed him outright.
Victors received the palm branch and an award from the editor. An outstanding fighter might receive a laurel crown and money from an appreciative crowd but for anyone originally condemned ad ludum the greatest reward was manumission emancipation , symbolised by the gift of a wooden training sword or staff rudis from the editor.
Martial describes a match between Priscus and Verus , who fought so evenly and bravely for so long that when both acknowledged defeat at the same instant, Titus awarded victory and a rudis to each.
His gravestone in Sicily includes his record: "Flamma, secutor , lived 30 years, fought 34 times, won 21 times, fought to a draw 9 times, defeated 4 times, a Syrian by nationality.
Delicatus made this for his deserving comrade-in-arms. A gladiator could acknowledge defeat by raising a finger ad digitum , in appeal to the referee to stop the combat and refer to the editor , whose decision would usually rest on the crowd's response.
During the Imperial era, matches advertised as sine missione without remission from the sentence of death suggest that missio the sparing of a defeated gladiator's life had become common practice.
The contract between editor and his lanista could include compensation for unexpected deaths;  this could be "some fifty times higher than the lease price" of the gladiator.
Under Augustus' rule, the demand for gladiators began to exceed supply, and matches sine missione were officially banned; an economical, pragmatic development that happened to match popular notions of "natural justice".
When Caligula and Claudius refused to spare defeated but popular fighters, their own popularity suffered.
In general, gladiators who fought well were likely to survive. Whether victorious or defeated, a gladiator was bound by oath to accept or implement his editor's decision, "the victor being nothing but the instrument of his [editor's] will.
Once a band of five retiarii in tunics, matched against the same number of secutores , yielded without a struggle; but when their death was ordered, one of them caught up his trident and slew all the victors.
Caligula bewailed this in a public proclamation as a most cruel murder. A gladiator who was refused missio was despatched by his opponent.
To die well, a gladiator should never ask for mercy, nor cry out. For death, when it stands near us, gives even to inexperienced men the courage not to seek to avoid the inevitable.
So the gladiator, no matter how faint-hearted he has been throughout the fight, offers his throat to his opponent and directs the wavering blade to the vital spot.
Epistles , Some mosaics show defeated gladiators kneeling in preparation for the moment of death. Seneca's "vital spot" seems to have meant the neck.
The body of a gladiator who had died well was placed on a couch of Libitina and removed with dignity to the arena morgue, where the corpse was stripped of armour, and probably had its throat cut to prove that dead was dead.
The Christian author Tertullian , commenting on ludi meridiani in Roman Carthage during the peak era of the games, describes a more humiliating method of removal.
One arena official, dressed as the "brother of Jove", Dis Pater god of the underworld strikes the corpse with a mallet.
Another, dressed as Mercury , tests for life-signs with a heated "wand"; once confirmed as dead, the body is dragged from the arena. Whether these victims were gladiators or noxii is unknown.
Modern pathological examination confirms the probably fatal use of a mallet on some, but not all the gladiator skulls found in a gladiators' cemetery.
Whether the corpse of such a gladiator could be redeemed from further ignominy by friends or familia is not known. The bodies of noxii , and possibly some damnati , were thrown into rivers or dumped unburied;  Denial of funeral rites and memorial condemned the shade manes of the deceased to restless wandering upon the earth as a dreadful larva or lemur.
The taint of infamia was perpetual. Gladiators could subscribe to a union collegia , which ensured their proper burial, and sometimes a pension or compensation for wives and children.
Otherwise, the gladiator's familia , which included his lanista , comrades and blood-kin, might fund his funeral and memorial costs, and use the memorial to assert their moral reputation as responsible, respectful colleagues or family members.
Some include the gladiator's type, in words or direct representation: for example, the memorial of a retiarius at Verona included an engraved trident and sword.
According to Cassius Dio, the emperor Caracalla gave the gladiator Bato a magnificent memorial and State funeral;  more typical are the simple gladiator tombs of the Eastern Roman Empire, whose brief inscriptions include the following:.
Titus Flavius Satyrus set up this monument in his memory from his own money. Paitraeites with his cell-mates set this up in memory".
Very little evidence survives of the religious beliefs of gladiators as a class, or their expectations of an afterlife. Modern scholarship offers little support for the once-prevalent notion that gladiators, venatores and bestiarii were personally or professionally dedicated to the cult of the Graeco-Roman goddess Nemesis.
Rather, she seems to have represented a kind of "Imperial Fortuna " who dispensed Imperial retribution on the one hand, and Imperially subsidised gifts on the other — including the munera.
One gladiator's tomb dedication clearly states that her decisions are not to be trusted. Having no personal responsibility for his own defeat and death, the losing gladiator remains the better man, worth avenging.
Doom killed me, not the liar Pinnas. No longer let him boast. I had a fellow gladiator, Polyneikes, who killed Pinnas and avenged me. Claudius Thallus set up this memorial from what I left behind as a legacy.
A gladiator might expect to fight in two or three munera annually, and an unknown number would have died in their first match. Few gladiators survived more than 10 contests, though one survived an extraordinary bouts;  and another died at 90 years of age, presumably long after retirement.
The earliest named gladiator school singular: ludus ; plural: ludi is that of Aurelius Scaurus at Capua. He was lanista of the gladiators employed by the state circa BC to instruct the legions and simultaneously entertain the public.
Socially, they were infames , on a footing with pimps and butchers and despised as price gougers. The Spartacus revolt had originated in a gladiator school privately owned by Lentulus Batiatus , and had been suppressed only after a protracted series of costly, sometimes disastrous campaigns by regular Roman troops.
In the late Republican era, a fear of similar uprisings, the usefulness of gladiator schools in creating private armies, and the exploitation of munera for political gain led to increased restrictions on gladiator school ownership, siting and organisation.
By Domitian 's time, many had been more or less absorbed by the State, including those at Pergamum , Alexandria , Praeneste and Capua.
Roman myrmillones gladiator helmet with relief depicting scenes from the Trojan War from Herculaneum.
In the Imperial era, volunteers required a magistrate's permission to join a school as auctorati. Their contract auctoramentum stipulated how often they were to perform, their fighting style and earnings.
A condemned bankrupt or debtor accepted as novice novicius could negotiate with his lanista or editor for the partial or complete payment of his debt.
Faced with runaway re-enlistment fees for skilled auctorati , Marcus Aurelius set their upper limit at 12, sesterces.
All prospective gladiators, whether volunteer or condemned, were bound to service by a sacred oath sacramentum. Fighting styles were probably learned through constant rehearsal as choreographed "numbers".
An elegant, economical style was preferred. Training included preparation for a stoical, unflinching death. Successful training required intense commitment.
Soldiers were routinely marked on the hand. Gladiators were typically accommodated in cells, arranged in barrack formation around a central practice arena.
Juvenal describes the segregation of gladiators according to type and status, suggestive of rigid hierarchies within the schools: "even the lowest scum of the arena observe this rule; even in prison they're separate".
Retiarii were kept away from damnati , and "fag targeteers" from "armoured heavies". As most ordinarii at games were from the same school, this kept potential opponents separate and safe from each other until the lawful munus.
Its replacement could have housed about and included a very small cell, probably for lesser punishments and so low that standing was impossible.
Despite the harsh discipline, gladiators represented a substantial investment for their lanista and were otherwise well fed and cared for.
Their daily, high-energy, vegetarian diet consisted of barley , boiled beans , oatmeal , ash and dried fruit. Part of Galen 's medical training was at a gladiator school in Pergamum where he saw and would later criticise the training, diet, and long-term health prospects of the gladiators.
Modern customs and institutions offer few useful parallels to the legal and social context of the gladiatoria munera. Offenders seen as particularly obnoxious to the state noxii received the most humiliating punishments.
These damnati at least might put on a good show and retrieve some respect, and very rarely, survive to fight another day.
Some may even have become "proper" gladiators. Among the most admired and skilled auctorati were those who, having been granted manumission, volunteered to fight in the arena.
Their legal status — slave or free — is uncertain. Under Roman law, a freed gladiator could not "offer such services [as those of a gladiator] after manumission, because they cannot be performed without endangering [his] life.
Payment for such appearances compounded their infamia. They could not vote, plead in court nor leave a will; and unless they were manumitted, their lives and property belonged to their masters.
Some "unfree" gladiators bequeathed money and personal property to wives and children, possibly via a sympathetic owner or familia ; some had their own slaves and gave them their freedom.
Caesar's munus of 46 BC included at least one equestrian, son of a Praetor, and two volunteers of possible senatorial rank. Thereafter, Caligula flouted them and Claudius strengthened them.
Even after the adoption of Christianity as Rome's official religion, legislation forbade the involvement of Rome's upper social classes in the games, though not the games themselves.
His motives are unknown, but his voluntary and "shameless" arena appearance combined the "womanly attire" of a lowly retiarius tunicatus , adorned with golden ribbons, with the apex headdress that marked him out as a priest of Mars.
In Juvenal's account, he seems to have relished the scandalous self-display, applause and the disgrace he inflicted on his more sturdy opponent by repeatedly skipping away from the confrontation.
As munera grew larger and more popular, open spaces such as the Forum Romanum were adapted as the Forum Boarium had been as venues in Rome and elsewhere, with temporary, elevated seating for the patron and high status spectators; they were popular but not truly public events:.
A show of gladiators was to be exhibited before the people in the market-place, and most of the magistrates erected scaffolds round about, with an intention of letting them for advantage.
Caius commanded them to take down their scaffolds, that the poor people might see the sport without paying anything.
But nobody obeying these orders of his, he gathered together a body of labourers, who worked for him, and overthrew all the scaffolds the very night before the contest was to take place.
So that by the next morning the market-place was cleared, and the common people had an opportunity of seeing the pastime. In this, the populace thought he had acted the part of a man; but he much disobliged the tribunes his colleagues, who regarded it as a piece of violent and presumptuous interference.
Ticket scalpers Locarii sometimes sold or let out seats at inflated prices. Martial wrote that "Hermes [a gladiator who always drew the crowds] means riches for the ticket scalpers".
It was inaugurated by Titus in 80 AD as the personal gift of the Emperor to the people of Rome, paid for by the imperial share of booty after the Jewish Revolt.
Amphitheatres were usually oval in plan. Their seating tiers surrounded the arena below, where the community's judgments were meted out, in full public view.
From across the stands, crowd and editor could assess each other's character and temperament. For the crowd, amphitheatres afforded unique opportunities for free expression and free speech theatralis licentia.
Petitions could be submitted to the editor as magistrate in full view of the community. Factiones and claques could vent their spleen on each other, and occasionally on Emperors.
The emperor Titus's dignified yet confident ease in his management of an amphitheatre crowd and its factions were taken as a measure of his enormous popularity and the rightness of his imperium.
The amphitheatre munus thus served the Roman community as living theatre and a court in miniature, in which judgement could be served not only on those in the arena below, but on their judges.
Their seating was "disorderly and indiscriminate" until Augustus prescribed its arrangement in his Social Reforms. To persuade the Senate, he expressed his distress on behalf of a Senator who could not find seating at a crowded games in Puteoli :.
In consequence of this the senate decreed that, whenever any public show was given anywhere, the first row of seats should be reserved for senators; and at Rome he would not allow the envoys of the free and allied nations to sit in the orchestra, since he was informed that even freedmen were sometimes appointed.
He separated the soldiery from the people. He assigned special seats to the married men of the commons, to boys under age their own section and the adjoining one to their preceptors; and he decreed that no one wearing a dark cloak should sit in the middle of the house.
He would not allow women to view even the gladiators except from the upper seats, though it had been the custom for men and women to sit together at such shows.
Only the Vestal virgins were assigned a place to themselves, opposite the praetor's tribunal. These arrangements do not seem to have been strongly enforced.
Popular factions supported favourite gladiators and gladiator types. The secutor was equipped with a long, heavy "large" shield called a scutum ; Secutores , their supporters and any heavyweight secutor -based types such as the Murmillo were secutarii.
Titus and Trajan preferred the parmularii and Domitian the secutarii ; Marcus Aurelius took neither side. Nero seems to have enjoyed the brawls between rowdy, enthusiastic and sometimes violent factions, but called in the troops if they went too far.
There were also local rivalries. At Pompeii's amphitheatre, during Nero's reign, the trading of insults between Pompeians and Nucerian spectators during public ludi led to stone throwing and riot.
Many were killed or wounded. Nero banned gladiator munera though not the games at Pompeii for ten years as punishment. The story is told in Pompeian graffiti and high quality wall painting, with much boasting of Pompeii's "victory" over Nuceria.
A man who knows how to conquer in war is a man who knows how to arrange a banquet and put on a show.
Rome was essentially a landowning military aristocracy. From the early days of the Republic, ten years of military service were a citizen's duty and a prerequisite for election to public office.
Devotio willingness to sacrifice one's life to the greater good was central to the Roman military ideal, and was the core of the Roman military oath.
It applied from highest to lowest alike in the chain of command. In the aftermath of Cannae, Scipio Africanus crucified Roman deserters and had non-Roman deserters thrown to the beasts.
In obedience to the Books of Destiny, some strange and unusual sacrifices were made, human sacrifices amongst them. They were lowered into a stone vault, which had on a previous occasion also been polluted by human victims, a practice most repulsive to Roman feelings.
When the gods were believed to be duly propitiated Armour, weapons, and other things of the kind were ordered to be in readiness, and the ancient spoils gathered from the enemy were taken down from the temples and colonnades.
The dearth of freemen necessitated a new kind of enlistment; 8, sturdy youths from amongst the slaves were armed at the public cost, after they had each been asked whether they were willing to serve or no.
These soldiers were preferred, as there would be an opportunity of ransoming them when taken prisoners at a lower price.
The account notes, uncomfortably, the bloodless human sacrifices performed to help turn the tide of the war in Rome's favour.
While the Senate mustered their willing slaves, Hannibal offered his dishonoured Roman captives a chance for honourable death, in what Livy describes as something very like the Roman munus.
The munus thus represented an essentially military, self-sacrificial ideal, taken to extreme fulfillment in the gladiator's oath.
Two years later, following its defeat at the Battle of Arausio :. Rutilius, consul with C. For he, following the example of no previous general, with teachers summoned from the gladiatorial training school of C.
Aurelus Scaurus, implanted in the legions a more sophisticated method of avoiding and dealing a blow and mixed bravery with skill and skill back again with virtue so that skill became stronger by bravery's passion and passion became more wary with the knowledge of this art.
The military were great aficionados of the games, and supervised the schools. Many schools and amphitheatres were sited at or near military barracks, and some provincial army units owned gladiator troupes.
It would rise to twenty, and later, to twenty-five years. Roman military discipline was ferocious; severe enough to provoke mutiny, despite the consequences.
A career as a volunteer gladiator may have seemed an attractive option for some. Opposite him on the field, Vitellius 's army was swollen by levies of slaves, plebs and gladiators.
They had served their late master with exemplary loyalty but thereafter, they disappear from the record. Roman writing as a whole demonstrates a deep ambivalence towards the gladiatoria munera.
Even the most complex and sophisticated munera of the Imperial era evoked the ancient, ancestral dii manes of the underworld and were framed by the protective, lawful rites of sacrificium.
Their popularity made their co-option by the state inevitable; Cicero acknowledged their sponsorship as a political imperative.
And suppose a gladiator has been brought to the ground, when do you ever see one twist his neck away after he has been ordered to extend it for the death blow?
Thus demoralised was Capua. The munus itself could be interpreted as pious necessity, but its increasing luxury corroded Roman virtue, and created an un-Roman appetite for profligacy and self-indulgence.
Having "neither hope nor illusions", the gladiator could transcend his own debased nature, and disempower death itself by meeting it face to face.
Courage, dignity, altruism and loyalty were morally redemptive; Lucian idealised this principle in his story of Sisinnes, who voluntarily fought as a gladiator, earned 10, drachmas and used it to buy freedom for his friend, Toxaris.
These accounts seek a higher moral meaning from the munus , but Ovid 's very detailed though satirical instructions for seduction in the amphitheatre suggest that the spectacles could generate a potent and dangerously sexual atmosphere.
There remained the thrilling possibility of clandestine sexual transgression by high-caste spectators and their heroes of the arena. Such assignations were a source for gossip and satire but some became unforgivably public: .
What was the youthful charm that so fired Eppia? What hooked her? What did she see in him to make her put up with being called "the gladiator's moll"?
Her poppet, her Sergius, was no chicken, with a dud arm that prompted hope of early retirement. Besides his face looked a proper mess, helmet-scarred, a great wart on his nose, an unpleasant discharge always trickling from one eye.
But he was a gladiator. That word makes the whole breed seem handsome, and made her prefer him to her children and country, her sister, her husband.
Steel is what they fall in love with. Most gladiators would have aimed lower. On the one and the same account they glorify them and they degrade and diminish them; yes, further, they openly condemn them to disgrace and civil degradation; they keep them religiously excluded from council chamber, rostrum, senate, knighthood, and every other kind of office and a good many distinctions.
The perversity of it! They love whom they lower; they despise whom they approve; the art they glorify, the artist they disgrace. In this new Play, I attempted to follow the old custom of mine, of making a fresh trial; I brought it on again.
In the first Act I pleased; when in the meantime a rumor spread that gladiators were about to be exhibited; the populace flock together, make a tumult, clamor aloud, and fight for their places: meantime, I was unable to maintain my place.
Images of gladiators could be found throughout the Republic and Empire, among all classes. Mosaics dating from the 2nd through 4th centuries AD have been invaluable in the reconstruction of combat and its rules, gladiator types and the development of the munus.
Throughout the Roman world, ceramics, lamps, gems and jewellery, mosaics, reliefs, wall paintings and statuary offer evidence, sometimes the best evidence, of the clothing, props, equipment, names, events, prevalence and rules of gladiatorial combat.
Earlier periods provide only occasional, perhaps exceptional examples. Souvenir ceramics were produced depicting named gladiators in combat; similar images of higher quality, were available on more expensive articles in high quality ceramic, glass or silver.
Pliny the Elder gives vivid examples of the popularity of gladiator portraiture in Antium and an artistic treat laid on by an adoptive aristocrat for the solidly plebeian citizens of the Roman Aventine :.
When a freedman of Nero was giving a gladiatorial show at Antium , the public porticoes were covered with paintings, so we are told, containing life-like portraits of all the gladiators and assistants.
This portraiture of gladiators has been the highest interest in art for many centuries now, but it was Gaius Terentius who began the practice of having pictures made of gladiatorial shows and exhibited in public; in honour of his grandfather who had adopted him he provided thirty pairs of Gladiators in the Forum for three consecutive days, and exhibited a picture of the matches in the Grove of Diana.
Some Roman reenactors attempt to recreate Roman gladiator troupes. Some of these groups are part of larger Roman reenactment groups, and others are wholly independent, though they might participate in larger demonstrations of Roman reenacting or historical reenacting in general.
These groups usually focus on portraying mock gladiatorial combat in as accurate a manner as possible. Secutor, Thraex vs. Gladiator fights have been depicted in a number of peplum films also known as "sword-and-sandal" movies.
This is a genre of largely Italian-made historical epics costume dramas that dominated the Italian film industry from to They can be immediately differentiated from the competing Hollywood product by their use of dubbing.
The pepla attempted to emulate the big-budget Hollywood historical epics of the time, such as Spartacus. Inspired by the success of Spartacus , there were a number of Italian peplums that emphasized the gladiatorial arena fights in their plots, with it becoming almost a peplum subgenre in itself; One group of supermen known as "The Ten Gladiators" appeared in a trilogy, all three films starring Dan Vadis in the lead role.
Grier and Markov portray female gladiators in ancient Rome, who have been enslaved and must fight for their freedom. Crowe portrays a fictional Roman general who is reduced to slavery and then rises through the ranks of the gladiatorial arena to avenge the murder of his family.
Amazons and Gladiators is a drama action adventure film directed and written by Zachary Weintraub starring Patrick Bergin and Jennifer Rubin.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Roman combatant for entertainment. For other uses, see Gladiator disambiguation.
Main article: List of Roman gladiator types. Main article: Gladiatrix. See also: Pollice verso. Shin guard depicting Venus Euploia on a ship shaped like a dolphin.
Heart-shaped spear head found in the gladiator barracks in Pompeii. Main article: List of Roman amphitheatres.
Gladiator show fight in Trier in Nimes , Carnuntum , Austria, Play media. This section does not cite any sources.
Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
December Learn how and when to remove this template message. History portal. Nicolaus cites Posidonius 's support for a Celtic origin and Hermippus' for a Mantinean therefore Greek origin.
Futrell is citing Livy, 9. Paestum was colonized by Rome in BC. Livy's account summary 16 places beast-hunts and gladiatorial munera within this single munus.
See Welch , p. Welch is citing Ausanius: Seneca simply says they were "war captives". Evidence of "Samnite" as an insult in earlier writings fades as Samnium is absorbed into the republic.
Quoted in Futrell , pp. Livy's published works are often embellished with illustrative rhetorical detail.
Welch is citing Livy, The Aemilii Lepidii were one of the most important families in Rome at the time, and probably owned a gladiator school ludus.
Wiedemann is citing Valerius Maximus, 2. Gladiator gangs were used by Caesar and others to overawe and "persuade".
Gladiators could be enrolled to serve noble households; some household slaves may have been raised and trained for this. For more details see Plutarch's Julius Caesar , 5.
See also Pliny's Historia Naturalis , Antiochus IV Epiphanes of Greece was keen to upstage his Roman allies, but gladiators were becoming increasingly expensive, and to save costs, all of his were local volunteers.
Kyle is citing Cicero's Lex Tullia Ambitu. Wiedemann is citing Cassius Dio, Augustus's games each involved an average of gladiator pairs. Brown is citing Dio Cassius, De Spectaculis , Compared to "pagan" noxii , Christian deaths in the arena would have been few.
Relatio , 8. See Theoderet's Historia Ecclesiastica , 5. The Jewish War , 6. C, at Lewis and Short Perseus Project.
See also Cassius Dio's accusation of entrapment by informers to provide "arena slaves" under Claudius; Futrell , p.
Futrell is citing Cassius Dio. Lives , "Tiberius", 7. Lives , "Nero", Fox is citing Pliny. Commodus , 73 Epitome.
Commodus was assassinated and posthumously declared a public enemy but was later deified. Based on fragmentary Pompeian remains and citing of Pliny's Historia Naturalis , Watch on Prime Video included with Prime.
Added to Watchlist. From metacritic. New on Netflix India This July Top Movies Bucket List. Heads Will Roll. Share this Rating Title: Gladiator 8.
Use the HTML below. You must be a registered user to use the IMDb rating plugin. Top Rated Movies 41 Won 5 Oscars. Edit Cast Cast overview, first billed only: Russell Crowe Maximus Joaquin Phoenix Commodus Connie Nielsen Lucilla Oliver Reed Proximo Richard Harris Marcus Aurelius Derek Jacobi Gracchus Djimon Hounsou Juba David Schofield Falco John Shrapnel Gaius Tomas Arana Quintus Ralf Moeller Hagen Spencer Treat Clark Lucius David Hemmings Cassius Tommy Flanagan Cicero Sven-Ole Thorsen Taglines: Summer A.
Edit Did You Know? Trivia The real Lucius Verus, who is portrayed as a young kid in the movie, was the son of Marcus Aurelius' adopted brother, and died eight years into his reign.
Commodus' selection as Caesar was made when he was five-years-old, and coins were made with his likeness on it. Goofs During the fight with Tigris, Maximus kills the tiger and shoves it off of him to the side and we see clearly a shot of the tiger away from Maximus.
However when we cut back to Maximus and he is fighting on the ground, we can see the tiger still on top of Maximus. Quotes Gracchus : I don't pretend to be a man of the people.
But I do try to be a man for the people. Alternate Versions The first printing of the bonus disc from the 'Signature Selection' DVD release contains a documentary about the links between sport and violence which includes a picture from the Hillsborough football disaster.
After complaints from a support group for relatives of the victims the picture was removed from subsequent pressings. Was this review helpful to you?
Yes No Report this. Q: Did the Roman Colosseum really have a canopy system to provide shade to the spectators? Q: What are the differences between the theatrical cut and the Extended Cut?
Language: English. Runtime: min min Extended Edition. Color: Color. Edit page. The Best "Bob's Burgers" Parodies. Clear your history.
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Gladator VideoGladiator - Maximus Decimus Meridius Ein Yugioh Letzter Wille trägt ihn aus der Arena, angeführt vom freigelassenen Gracchus und gefolgt von seinen befreundeten Gladiatoren und Quintus. Häufig reisten Gladiatoren in einer Db Casino Koln familia von Stadt zu Stadt. So wie Augustus die Veranstaltung von Gladiatorenkämpfen als kaiserliches Privileg etablierte, so prägte er auch den Ablauf eines Gladiatorenkampfes entscheidend mit. Commodus befiehlt daraufhin den Prätorianern die Hinrichtung bzw. Parkes sagte in einem Interview vergangenes Jahr, das Sequel werde die Handlung etwa 30 Jahre Germany Regional League dem ersten Teil ansetzen. Der holländische Professor für Alte Geschichte Fik Meijer weist darauf hin, dass der Gladiatorenkampf seinen Fortbestand Book Of Ra Free Android ritualisierten Zweikämpfen bis ins Neuer Abschnitt. Babyspiele Online Überleben eines erfahrenen Kämpfers lag durchaus im Eigeninteresse des Publikums — nur so waren Fre Eex Kämpfe auch in der Zukunft sichergestellt. Nach römischen Quellen waren die Gladiatorenspiele etruskischen Ursprungs. Obwohl Gladiatoren gesellschaftlich noch niedriger als Sklaven standen, war das Interesse, Gladiator zu werden, zeitweilig so hoch, dass der Senat dies durch ein Gesetz einzuschränken versuchte. Marcus Junkelmann weist bei diesen Vergleichen auf einen entscheidenden Unterschied hin. Jedoch zeigen Bone Bruise Syndrom aus Paestum in Kampanien aus dem 4. Damit wurde ihre Ausdauer trainiert. Allerdings Union Berlin Transfermarkt bei Darstellungen etruskischer Leichenspiele Szenen, die als Eu Casino Serios deutbar wären.
Gladator VideoThe Battle with A Retired Gladiator - Gladiator - SceneScreen This is described as a " munus " plural: muneraa commemorative duty owed the manes of a dead ancestor by his descendants. Modern pathological examination confirms the probably fatal use of Slots Tale mallet on Free Slot Buffalo, but not all the gladiator skulls found in a gladiators' cemetery. Having "neither hope nor illusions", the gladiator could transcend his own debased nature, and disempower death itself by meeting Spiele T-Online face to face. Categories : s BC establishments disestablishments 3rd-century BC establishments in the Roman Republic s disestablishments in the Roman Empire Gladiator types Gladiatorial Jeux Gaming Roman gladiators Ancient Roman culture Ancient Roman occupations Sports occupations and roles Violence in sports Animal cruelty incidents. Courage, dignity, altruism and loyalty were morally redemptive; Lucian idealised this principle Parker Louis Gbr his story of Sisinnes, who voluntarily fought as a gladiator, earned 10, drachmas and used it to buy freedom for his friend, Toxaris.
Keep your little bookworms engaged outside of the classroom with our selection of the very best literary adaptations. See the full list. Maximus is a powerful Roman general, loved by the people and the aging Emperor, Marcus Aurelius.
Before his death, the Emperor chooses Maximus to be his heir over his own son, Commodus, and a power struggle leaves Maximus and his family condemned to death.
The powerful general is unable to save his family, and his loss of will allows him to get captured and put into the Gladiator games until he dies.
The only desire that fuels him now is the chance to rise to the top so that he will be able to look into the eyes of the man who will feel his revenge.
Written by Chris "Morphy" Terry. Most films require that the viewer identifies with the character to truly be engrossed with the film.
If you can't feel something for the character, than the audience is lost. Luckily, in Ridley Scott's case, Russel Crowe is so captivating and convincing as a general loved by his troops and as a slave loved by the people that the movie really works.
Possibly one of the greatest actors today, Crowe carries this epic film on his very capable shoulders. Not to say that he is the only reason this works.
The supporting cast, most notably Connie Neilsen, buoy the film to new perspectives. Jacquin Phoenix definitely captures the egotisitcal persona he should display, stealing every scene he's in.
Phoenix will surely be put on the map with Gladiator. But the real shining star in this film are the incredible action sequences which jolt the viewer right in with the opening sequences, as Maximus' true worth to the Roman Empire is displayed.
Scott's camera work within these completed sequences takes a modern twist that really works for the gruesome scenes. Crowe will now get the respect he deserves for this collosal performance.
Gladiator makes the most of its 2 and a half hours, marking a triumphant comeback for the long forgotten epics of the classic days of film.
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Official Sites. Company Credits. Technical Specs. Plot Summary. No historical evidence supports this. On campaign they usually wore standard legionary equipment with some unique decorative elements.
In the bird's eye view of Rome when the city is introduced for the first time there are several buildings that did not exist at the time of Gladiator.
For example, the Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine is quite prominent, though it was not completed until AD Early in the story, Commodus regards a statue in his father's tent; the statue has no pupils, a trait commonly seen in fiction about the Roman Empire.
In fact, most statues were thought to have painted eyes and pupils at the time when they were created; it was only through the passage of time that the paint would have worn off, leaving the statues with their blank stares.
The film's plot was influenced by two s Hollywood films of the sword-and-sandal genre, The Fall of the Roman Empire and Spartacus ,  and shares several plot points with The Fall of the Roman Empire , which tells the story of Livius, who, like Maximus in Gladiator , is Marcus Aurelius's intended successor.
Livius is in love with Lucilla and seeks to marry her while Maximus, who is happily married, was formerly in love with her.
Both films portray the death of Marcus Aurelius as an assassination. In Fall of the Roman Empire a group of conspirators independent of Commodus, hoping to profit from Commodus's accession, arrange for Marcus Aurelius to be poisoned; in Gladiator Commodus himself murders his father by smothering him.
In the course of Fall of the Roman Empire Commodus unsuccessfully seeks to win Livius over to his vision of empire in contrast to that of his father, but continues to employ him notwithstanding; in Gladiator , when Commodus fails to secure Maximus's allegiance, he executes Maximus's wife and son and tries unsuccessfully to execute him.
Livius in Fall of the Roman Empire and Maximus in Gladiator kill Commodus in single combat, Livius to save Lucilla and Maximus to avenge the murder of his wife and son, and both do it for the greater good of Rome.
Scott cited Spartacus and Ben-Hur as influences on the film: "These movies were part of my cinema-going youth. Both films also share a specific set piece, wherein a gladiator Maximus here, Woody Strode 's Draba in Spartacus throws his weapon into a spectator box at the end of a match, as well as at least one line of dialogue: "Rome is the mob", said here by Gracchus and by Julius Caesar John Gavin in Spartacus.
The film's depiction of Commodus's entry into Rome borrows imagery from Leni Riefenstahl 's Nazi propaganda film Triumph of the Will , although Scott has pointed out that the iconography of Nazi rallies was itself inspired by the Roman Empire.
Gladiator reflects back on the film by duplicating similar events that occurred in Adolf Hitler 's procession. The Nazi film opens with an aerial view of Hitler arriving in a plane, while Scott shows an aerial view of Rome, quickly followed by a shot of the large crowd of people watching Commodus pass them in a procession with his chariot.
At one point in the Nazi film, a little girl gives flowers to Hitler, while Commodus is met by several girls who all give him bundles of flowers.
Zimmer was originally planning to use Israeli vocalist Ofra Haza for the score, after his work with her in The Prince of Egypt.
However, Haza died in late February , before she was able to record, and so Gerrard was chosen instead. Lisa Gerrard's vocals are similar to her own work on The Insider score.
Some of the music from the film was featured in the NFL playoffs in January before commercial breaks and before and after half-time.
The website's critical consensus reads, "Ridley Scott and an excellent cast successfully convey the intensity of Roman gladiatorial combat as well as the political intrigue brewing beneath.
The Battle of Germania was cited by CNN as one of their "favorite on-screen battle scenes",  while Entertainment Weekly named Maximus as their sixth favorite action hero, because of "Crowe's steely, soulful performance",  and named it as their third favorite revenge film.
Conversely, Roger Ebert gave the film 2 out of 4 stars, criticizing the look of the film as "muddy, fuzzy, and indistinct. Of award nominations, the film won 48 prizes.
It was the first movie to win Best Picture without winning either a directing or screenwriting award since All the King's Men at the 22nd Academy Awards in In , Chicago became another Best Picture winner which didn't win an Academy Award in either of these two major categories.
The film's mainstream success is responsible for an increased interest in Roman and classical history in the United States.
It's called the 'Gladiator' effect by writers and publishers. The snob in us likes to believe that it is always books that spin off movies.
And not for more Roman screen colossals, but for writing that is serious or fun or both. The character of Maximus was placed 12th in the Total Film list of 50 best movie heroes and villains  and 35th in the Empire 's Greatest Movie Characters.
The film was first released on DVD on November 21, , and has since been released in several different extended and special edition versions.
Special features for the Blu-ray Disc and DVDs include deleted scenes , trailers , documentaries , commentaries , storyboards , image galleries, Easter eggs , and cast auditions.
The film was released on Blu-ray in September , in a 2-disc edition containing both the theatrical and extended cuts of the film, as part of Paramount 's "Sapphire Series" Paramount acquired the rights to the film when it bought the DreamWorks library in The DVD editions that have been released since the original two-disc version, include a film only single-disc edition as well as a three-disc "extended edition" DVD which was released in August The extended edition DVD features approximately fifteen minutes of additional scenes, most of which appear in the previous release as deleted scenes.
The original cut, which Scott still calls his director's cut, is also select-able via seamless branching which is not included on the UK edition.
The film is on the first disc, the second one has a three-hour documentary into the making of the film by DVD producer Charles de Lauzirika , and the third disc contains supplements.
Discs one and two of the three-disc extended edition were also repackaged and sold as a two-disc "special edition" in the EU in In June , Douglas Wick said a Gladiator prequel was in development.
However, Russell Crowe was interested in resurrecting Maximus, and further researched Roman beliefs about the afterlife to accomplish this.
This includes a suggestion by Parkes that, in order to enable Russell Crowe to return to play Maximus, a sequel could involve a "multi-generational drama about Maximus and the Aurelians and this chapter of Rome", similar in concept to The Godfather Part II.
In , Scott stated he and Crowe approached Nick Cave to rewrite the film, but their ideas conflicted with DreamWorks's idea of a spin-off involving Lucius, whom Scott revealed would turn out to be Maximus's son with Lucilla.
Scott noted that a tale of corruption in Rome was too complex, whereas Gladiator worked due to its simple drive. The script would have opened with a group of dying Roman gods reincarnating Maximus, who returns to Rome to defend his son Marius and his Christian companions against the Decian persecution.
The film would have concluded with Maximus defeating Roman legionaries led by an adult Lucius and becoming an immortal force of war, with a minute sequence of Maximus fighting in the Crusades , World War II , and the Vietnam War before ending up working at the modern-day Pentagon.
By November , it was announced that Paramount Pictures is developing a sequel, which Universal has the option to co-finance, with Scott returning as director and Peter Craig writing the script.
In June , Parkes and MacDonald confirmed that the sequel was still in development with Scott and Craig, saying, "We're working with Ridley Scott, that's one we wouldn't touch unless we felt in a way to do it was legitimate.
We're working with an amazing writer as well, Peter Craig. It picks up the story 30 years later From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Gladiator disambiguation. Theatrical release poster. Hans Zimmer Lisa Gerrard.
Release date. Running time. United States  United Kingdom . Main article: Gladiator soundtrack. Main article: List of accolades received by Gladiator.
Film portal. Archived from the original on October 7, Retrieved July 30, British Board of Film Classification. Archived from the original on May 17, Retrieved June 2, American Film Institute.
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Cincinnatus Leaves His Plow. Archived from the original on June 10, Retrieved June 17, Archived from the original on June 17, Gladiator , professional combatant in ancient Rome.
The gladiators originally performed at Etruscan funerals, no doubt with intent to give the dead man armed attendants in the next world; hence the fights were usually to the death.
At shows in Rome these exhibitions became wildly popular and increased in size from three pairs at the first known exhibition in bce at the funeral of a Brutus to pairs in the time of Julius Caesar died 44 bce.
Hence the shows extended from one day to as many as a hundred, under the emperor Titus , and the emperor Trajan in his triumph ce had 5, pairs of gladiators.
Shows were also given in other towns of the Roman Empire , as can be seen from the traces of amphitheatres. There were various classes of gladiators, distinguished by their arms or modes of fighting.
The Samnites fought with the national weapons—a large oblong shield, a visor, a plumed helmet, and a short sword. The shows were announced several days before they took place by bills affixed to the walls of houses and public buildings; copies were also sold in the streets.
These bills gave the names of the chief pairs of competitors, the date of the show, the name of the giver, and the different kinds of combats.
The spectacle began with a procession of the gladiators through the arena, and the proceedings opened with a sham fight praelusio, prolusio with wooden swords and javelins.
The signal for real fighting was given by the sound of the trumpet, and those who showed fear were driven into the arena with whips and red-hot irons.
If the spectators were in favour of mercy, they waved their handkerchiefs; if they desired the death of the conquered gladiator, they turned their thumbs downward.
This is the popular view; another view is that those who wanted the death of the defeated gladiator turned their thumbs toward their breasts as a signal to stab him, and those who wished him to be spared turned their thumbs downward as a signal to drop the sword.
The reward of victory consisted of branches of palm and sometimes of money. If a gladiator survived a number of combats, he might be discharged from further service; he could, however, reengage after discharge.
On occasion gladiators became politically important, because many of the more turbulent public men had bodyguards composed of them. This of course led to occasional clashes with bloodshed on both sides.Ein Kampf konnte auf vier Weisen enden:. In: Nds Ladies Bremen by Natalia. Ebenso sind Tierhetzen — das Morgenprogramm eines Gladiatorenkampfes — in legaler Form als Stierkampf bis heute Publikumsmagnet; Hundekämpfe u. LiteraturS. Wenige Tage vor dem Beginn des munus wurden die Kämpfer öffentlich vorgestellt. Bald wurden Casino Roulette Mindesteinsatz auch in anderen Teilen des Römischen Reiches nachgeahmt. Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Ich muss sagen Steckhalma Film hat sich zu meinem Lieblingsfilm herauskristalisiert hat. Sowohl Spartacus als auch Gladiator sind in ihrer Darstellung der Gladiatorenkämpfe nicht korrekt. Jahrhundert ein, die sich unter anderem die Argumente der Stoiker zu eigen machten und zuspitzten, vor allem aber auf das biblische Tipp24games De verwiesen.