Hauptsächlich in Form von Briefen seiner. Protagonisten erzählt Stoker die Geschichte eines transsylvanischen Vampirs, der mit Hilfe. Dracula (auch bekannt als Mathias Cronqvist oder Vlad Țepeș) ist DER Bösewicht in während er sein Leben dafür riskierte in Gottes Namen zu kämpfen. Die berühmtesten Dracula-Darsteller: Max Schreck, Bela Lugosi, Christopher Lee, Man könnte übrigens hinter dem klangvollen Namen Max Schreck ein gut.
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Stoker's notes for Dracula show that the name of the count was originally "Count Wampyr", but Stoker became intrigued by the name "Dracula" while doing research, after reading William Wilkinson 's book An Account of the Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia with Political Observations Relative to Them London ,  which he found in the Whitby Library and consulted a number of times during visits to Whitby in the s.
In the present day however, dracul means "the devil". Costing six shillings, the novel was bound in yellow cloth and titled in red letters.
Dracula was not an immediate bestseller when it was first published, although reviewers were unstinting in their praise. According to literary historians Nina Auerbach and David J.
Skal in the Norton Critical Edition, the novel has become more significant for modern readers than it was for Victorian readers, most of whom enjoyed it just as a good adventure story.
It reached its broad and iconic status only later in the 20th century when the movie versions appeared. It did not make much money for Stoker.
Murnau's unauthorized adaptation of the story was released in theatres in in the form of Nosferatu. Stoker's widow took affront and, during the legal battle that followed, the novel's popularity started to grow.
Nosferatu was followed by a highly successful stage adaptation, touring the UK for three years before arriving in the US where Stoker's creation caught Hollywood's attention and, after the American movie version was released, the book has never been out of print.
However, some Victorian fans were ahead of the time, describing it as "the sensation of the season" and "the most blood-curdling novel of the paralysed century".
I think it is the very best story of diablerie which I have read for many years. Similarly good reviews appeared when the book was published in the U.
In his long essay, " Supernatural Horror in Literature ", American horror author and historian of the genre, H.
In the last several decades, literary and cultural scholars have offered diverse analyses of Stoker's novel and the character of Count Dracula.
Bentley reads Dracula as an embodiment of the Freudian id. Senf reads the novel as a response to the New Woman archetype,  while Christopher Craft sees Dracula as embodying latent homosexuality and sees the text as an example of a 'characteristic, if hyperbolic instance of Victorian anxiety over the potential fluidity of gender roles'.
Arata interprets the events of the novel as anxiety over colonialism and racial mixing ,  and Talia Schaffer construes the novel as an indictment of Oscar Wilde.
Bruno Starrs understands the novel to be a pro- Catholic pamphlet promoting proselytization. Dracula is a work of fiction, but it does contain some historical references; although it is a matter of conjecture and debate as to how much historical connection was deliberate on Stoker's part.
During his main reign — , "Vlad the Impaler" is said to have killed from 40, to , European civilians political rivals, criminals, and anyone that he considered "useless to humanity" , mainly by impaling.
The sources depicting these events are records by Saxon settlers in neighbouring Transylvania who had frequent clashes with Vlad III.
Vlad III is revered as a folk hero by Romanians for driving off the invading Ottoman Turks , of whom his impaled victims are said to have included as many as , Historically, the name "Dracula" is derived from a Chivalric order called the Order of the Dragon , founded by Sigismund of Luxembourg then king of Hungary to uphold Christianity and defend the Holy Roman Empire against the Ottoman Turks.
Vlad II Dracul , father of Vlad III, was admitted to the order around , after which Vlad II wore the emblem of the order and later, as ruler of Wallachia, his coinage bore the dragon symbol, from which the name "Dracula" is derived since "dracul" in Romanian means "the dragon".
The name "Dracula" became popular in Romania after publication of Stoker's book. Contrary to popular belief, the name Dracula does not translate to "son of the devil" in Romanian , which would be "fiul diavolului".
Stoker came across the name Dracula in his reading on Romanian history , and chose this to replace the name Count Wampyr originally intended for his villain.
Who was it but one of my own race who as Voivode crossed the Danube and beat the Turk on his own ground?
This was a Dracula indeed! Woe was it that his own unworthy brother, when he had fallen, sold his people to the Turk and brought the shame of slavery on them!
Was it not this Dracula, indeed, who inspired that other of his race who in a later age again and again brought his forces over the great river into Turkey-land; who, when he was beaten back, came again, and again, though he had to come alone from the bloody field where his troops were being slaughtered, since he knew that he alone could ultimately triumph!
Chapter 3, pp. He must, indeed, have been that Voivode Dracula who won his name against the Turk, over the great river on the very frontier of Turkey-land.
Chapter 18, p. Many of Stoker's biographers and literary critics have found strong similarities to the earlier Irish writer Sheridan Le Fanu 's classic of the vampire genre Carmilla.
The Irish legend of Abhartach has also been suggested as a source. In , McNally additionally suggested that Stoker was influenced by the history of Hungarian Countess Elizabeth Bathory , who allegedly tortured and killed between 36 and young women.
Haining and Tremaine maintain that, during this visit, Stoker was especially impressed by Slains Castle's interior and the surrounding landscape.
Miller and Leatherdale question the stringency of this connection. Many of the scenes in Whitby and London are based on real places that Stoker frequently visited, although he distorts the geography for the sake of the story in some cases.
One scholar has suggested that Stoker chose Whitby as the site of Dracula's first appearance in England because of the Synod of Whitby , given the novel's preoccupation with timekeeping and calendar disputes.
The short story "Dracula's Guest" was posthumously published in , two years after Stoker's death. It was, according to most contemporary critics, the deleted first or second chapter from the original manuscript  and the one which gave the volume its name,  : but which the original publishers deemed unnecessary to the overall story.
It is Walpurgis Night and the young Englishman foolishly leaves his hotel, in spite of the coachman's warnings, and wanders through a dense forest alone.
Along the way, he feels that he is being watched by a tall and thin stranger possibly Count Dracula. The short story climaxes in an old graveyard where the Englishman, caught in a blizzard, takes refuge in the marble tomb of "Countess Dolingen of Gratz".
Within the tomb, he sees the Countess—apparently asleep and healthy—but before he can investigate further, a mysterious force throws him clear of the tomb.
A lightning bolt then strikes the tomb, destroying it and incinerating the undead screaming countess.
The Englishman then loses consciousness. He awakens to find a "gigantic" wolf lying on his chest and licking at his throat; however, the wolf merely keeps him warm and protects him until help arrives.
When the Englishman is finally taken back to his hotel, a telegram awaits him from his expectant host Dracula, with a warning about "dangers from snow and wolves and night".
The Swedish scholar Rickard Berghorn noted that the description of the blonde countess in Dracula's Guest closely resembled the description of Josephine in the Powers of Darkness , which he used to argue that the countess and Josephine were meant to be the same character.
Powers of Darkness , by contrast, is written in a concise, punchy style; each scene adds to the progress of the plot.
Dacre Stoker and J. Barker wrote a prequel to Dracula titled Dracul , released in October An interpretation of the missing pages of the original novel, it was pieced together from Bram Stoker's editorial notes, artifacts, and journals.
The story of Dracula has been the basis for numerous films and plays. Stoker himself wrote the first theatrical adaptation, which was presented at the Lyceum Theatre on 18 May under the title Dracula, or The Undead shortly before the novel's publication and performed only once, in order to establish his own copyright for such adaptations.
This adaption was first published only a century later in October Murnau 's unauthorised film adaptation Nosferatu was released in , and the popularity of the novel increased considerably, owing to an attempt by Stoker's widow to have the film removed from public circulation.
Galeen transplanted the action of the story from s England to s Germany and reworked several characters, dropping some such as Lucy and all three of her suitors , and renaming others Dracula became Orlok , Jonathan Harker became Thomas Hutter, Mina became Ellen, and so on.
This attempt failed to avoid a court case, however; Florence Stoker sued Prana Film, and all copies of the film were ordered to be destroyed.
However, the company was bankrupt, and Stoker only recovered her legal fees in damages. Some copies survived and found their way into theatres.
Eventually, Florence Stoker gave up the fight against public displays of the film. Florence Stoker licensed the story to playwright Hamilton Deane , whose stage play adaptation toured England for several years before settling down in London.
Balderston to revise Deane's script in advance of its American premiere. Balderston significantly compressed the story, most notably consolidating or removing several characters.
The Deane play and its Balderston revisions introduced an expanded role and history for Renfield, who now replaced Jonathan Harker as Dracula's solicitor in the first part of the story; combined Mina Harker and Lucy Westenra into a single character named Lucy though both Mina and Lucy would appear in the subsequent film ; and omitted both Arthur Holmwood and Quincey Morris entirely.
Seward reprised for the English-language version of the Universal Studios film production. It was an international hit for Hammer Film, and Lee fixed the image of the fanged vampire in popular culture.
Christopher Lee also took on the role of Dracula in Count Dracula , a Spanish-Italian-German co-production notable for its adherence to the plot of the original novel.
Playing the part of Renfield in that version was Klaus Kinski , who later played Dracula himself in 's Nosferatu the Vampyre.
The character of Count Dracula has remained popular over the years, and many films have used the character as a villain, while others have named him in their titles, including Dracula's Daughter and The Brides of Dracula.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the novel. For the character, see Count Dracula.
For other uses, see Dracula disambiguation. Main article: Dracula's Guest. Main article: Powers of Darkness.
Main article: Dracula the Un-dead. Further information: Dracula in popular culture. Retrieved 8 October Dracula PDF.
Holmwood, he is the Hon. The Essential Dracula , Chapter 13, Note Retrieved 18 November Retrieved 4 June Retrieved 13 September Norton Critical Edition.
Preface, first paragraph. The British Library. Dracula: The Metamorphosis of a Fiend. Interview with the Vampire Queen".
Retrieved 31 March The Bride of Corinth [From my grave to wander]. Retrieved 8 October — via Project Gutenberg.
Varney the Vampire; Or, the Feast of Blood. Zittaw Press. Retrieved 8 October — via Google Books. Florescu and Raymond T. Little Brown.
McNally and Radu R. Houghton Mifflin. Events That Formed the Modern World. Library of Congress. Retrieved 29 November Dracula The Un-Dead.
Penguin Publishing Group. Universal Pictures , 70 Cal. METAphor 3 : 19— Retrieved 26 November University of New England 16 : 97— Today in Literature.
Retrieved 17 May Retrieved 23 March Retrieved 16 September Five Books. Retrieved 17 January Vlad the Impaler Dracula.
Cain Strategic Book Publishing. Retrieved 10 January Writing the Horror Movie. Retrieved 11 July History Ireland.
Dracula was a Woman. The Essential Dracula. London: Constable , quoted by Miller, Elizabeth. Like Universal's earlier version starring Bela Lugosi , the screenplay for this adaptation of Bram Stoker 's novel Dracula is based on the stage adaptation by Hamilton Deane and John L.
Balderston , which ran on Broadway and also starred Langella in a Tony Award -nominated performance. Set in the Edwardian period, and strikingly designed by Edward Gorey , the play ran for over performances between October and January It is also known for switching names of characters of Mina Harker and Lucy Westenra.
When Badham was asked, why he switched their names in his film, he said that he couldn't quite remember and that maybe he and Richter felt like Mina was a dopey name and that Lucy was kind of a nice name, so they rearranged it.
The Castle Dracula was a glass matte painted by Albert Whitlock. Gilbert Taylor was the cinematographer, while the original music score was contributed by John Williams.
According to Frank Langella , Count Dracula was "a dominant, aggressive force. He must have Miss Lucy or he dies.
He wants what he wants and he doesn't analyze it. Dracula as a character is very erotic. A woman can be totally passive with Dracula: 'he made me drink, I couldn't help it.
Dracula seems to represent a kind of doorway to sexual abandonment not possible with a mere mortal. Besides, he's offering immortality.
Actually, I can't think of a woman who wouldn't like to be taken if it's with love. If you take a woman by force and at the same time gently, you can't fail.
Langella wanted to explore sides of the character which weren't shown before: "I decided he was a highly vulnerable and erotic man, not cool and detached and with no sense of humour or humanity.
I didn't want him to appear stilted, stentorian or authoritarian as he's often presented. I wanted to show a man who, while evil, was lonely and could fall in love".
Langella holds this view many years after the release of the movie. In his interview during SITGES film festival he said that he "saw a gentleman in [Dracula], while the bad guys were the ones who wanted to destroy him, and we see that today in many instances: ignorance leads to the desire to destroy different people, there is the suffering of homosexuals, or women.
The cinematographer was changed and they had continual changes of plans. However, the actor mentioned that the process "turned out well" in the end.
However, the most vivid memories were Langella's efforts to create a different Dracula. He thus read the novel and found the character to be "gothic, elegant, lonely, without anyone who understood his problem, which consisted of the need for blood to survive.
In , at least three Dracula films were released around the world: West German director Werner Herzog 's re-telling as Nosferatu the Vampyre , this film, and the comedy Love at First Bite.
The success of the jokey Love at First Bite , starring George Hamilton , may have had something to do with the muted response this version would subsequently experience.
The film is a triumph of performance, art direction and mood over materials that can lend themselves so easily to self-satire This Dracula restores the character to the purity of its first film appearances The movie version But so many of its sequences are at fever pitch, and the mood varies so drastically from episode to episode, that the pace becomes pointless, even taxing, after a while.
In the home video market of the early s, John Badham's Dracula made it onto Variety ' s All-Time Horror Rentals in , but it eventually seemed to fall into relative cinematic anonymity for several years partly due to it having a very limited video release outside of the USA.
The theatrical version looks noticeably different from recent prints. When it was re-issued for a Widescreen Laserdisc release in , the director chose to alter the color timing , desaturating the look of the film.
John Badham had intended to shoot the film in black and white to mirror the monochrome film and the stark feel of the Gorey stage production , but Universal objected.
Cinematographer Gilbert Taylor was prompted to shoot the movie in warm, "golden" colours, to show off the distinctive production design. The original version has not been widely screened since the s.
Other than an occasional broadcast, such as on TCM in a pan and scan format the movie has effectively been out of print. In July Shout! Factory announced that it had licensed the movie from Universal Pictures to release the original theatrical color version of Dracula on Blu-Ray and was released in November of This is the first time the original Dracula has been made commercially available since first being released on VHS and Laserdisc in It also includes the previously available desaturated version on another disc.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Official theatrical poster. The Mirisch Corporation. Release date. Running time.
Julian Messner. Retrieved 27 June October La Vanguardia. Bram Stoker 's Dracula. Transylvania Mad Monster Party? Dracula " Dracula DraculaMathias glaube, dass Leon von allen Menschen, der sein würde, der ihn verstehen würde, doch als dies nicht der Fall war, verwandelte er sich eine Fledermaus und flog davon. Mathias, der zu Dracula wurde, aus Lament Wettanbieter Test Innocence. Ihr könnt euch nach einem Largest Rock Sightseeing-Tag oder Wanderungen durch die dichten Wälder eine entspannende Massage gönnen, um euch zu erholen. Er heiratete eine Frau namens Elisabethadie er über alles liebte. Nachdem Dracula besiegt war, versucht er Motherboard 2 Pcie X16 Slots Schwester mit sich zu ziehen, als letzten Akt der Rache. No other marks or inscriptions. Draculas Tod ungarischer Stummfilm, verschollen.